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Worcestershire County Council [HWCC Archaeology Service]




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Archaeological Assessment of Longtown [Central Marches Historic Towns Survey]

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Guest Contribution: Introduction

This archaeological survey report is reproduced with the kind permission of Worcestershire County Council Historic Environment and Archaeology Service to whom we are most grateful. The accompanying illustrations can be downloaded as pdf files by clicking the links at the end of the document.

Ewyas Lacy Study Group



Central Marches Historic Towns Survey 1992-6






Primary contact


Laura Templeton

Project Officer (illustration)

Worcestershire County Council


University of Worcester



Tel: 01905 855419






Archaeological assessment of Longtown, Hereford and Worcester


Victoria Buteux

with contributions by Derek Hurst, Richard Morriss, Elizabeth Pearson and Paul Stamper




The historic town of Longtown was surveyed during the Central Marches Historic

Towns Survey, a desk-based study of the 64 smaller historic towns in Shropshire,

Herefordshire and Worcestershire. Archaeological and documentary evidence relating

to the historic core of Longtown was carefully analysed, comprising topographic data,

published and unpublished archaeological reports, museum collections, primary and

secondary historical sources, historical maps, and field data recorded by the project


Detailed evidence is provided on the character and layout of the settlement in the

medieval period. The available information is analysed and mapped in detail, and a

model of the development of the town is proposed. In addition, the evidence for

pre-urban occupation is considered, together with evidence of 19th century occupation.

All archaeologically-relevant information has been recorded as part of the county Sites

and Monuments Record. Specialist assessments of artefacts, ecofacts, standing buildings

and documentary souyrces are included. A detailed archaeological research framework

has been developed for Longtown, which will inform future archaeological

investigations as well as management decisions.

The historic core of Longtown contains buried archaeological deposits, and these are

judged to have high potential. In addition there is high potential for the recovery of

artefact assemblages, and moderate potential for the recovery of ecofatual assemblages.

The historic buildings do not constitute an extensive complementary body of evidence,

and are judged to have low potential for detailed study and recording. The surviving

documentary sources are very few in number and consequently the potential for further

study is very limited.


1 Introduction


1.1 Location and landuse

The urban area of Longtown is located at NGR SO 321 291 in South Herefordshire

District. The modern settlement of Longtown comprises a thin scatter of houses along

the Hay to Abergavenny road.


1.2 Topography, geology and soils

Longtown occupies a commanding position on the eastern slopes of the Black

Mountains. It lies at a height of between 140m and 180m OD and runs along a spur

between the valleys of the River Monnow and the Olchon Brook which joins the





Monnow to the south of the settlement. The soils of the Bromyard association are

predominantly typical argillic brown earths (Soil Survey of England and Wales, Ragg et

al 1984) overlying Devonian Brownstones (British Geological Survey 1:250,000



1.3 Chronological outline

An estate referred to as Ewias within Ewias and identified as Longtown is mentioned in

the Domesday Survey as part of the lands of Roger de Lacey (Thorn and Thorn

1983). The first castle in the area was probably Pont Hendre c 1km to the southeast of

Longtown Castle. Pont Hendre guarded the crossing of the Olchon brook and was built at

the end of 11th century by Roger de Lacey. By 1188 a new castle at Longtown was built

and it was around this castle that the borough developed (Beresford 1988).

Longtown, or Ewyas Lacey as it was sometimes called in the medieval period, was an

important stronghold in the southern marches.

The date of the foundation of the borough at Ewyas Lacey is not known. The 13th

century chapel of St Peter contains re-used 12th century masonry (RCHME 1931, 179)

which may indicate that the town was founded at the same time as the construction of the

castle. No market charter survives but a Nova Villa is mentioned in 1232

(Coplestone-Crow 1989) and the first documentary reference to a burgage occurs in c

1234 (Beresford 1988, 451). The town appears to have prospered and by 1310 there

were 100 burgages (Beresford 1988, 451). The population would also have included the

families of the burgesses, the non-burgesses and their families as well as the castle

garrison which would make quite a substantial population (Morriss and Williams 1991).

The decline of the town is not documented but like others in the area it probably

suffered from rapid depopulation in the second half of the 14th century, due to the

Black Death (Morriss and Williams 1991). The settlement was no longer functioning as a

market centre by 1500 (O'Donnell 1971).

By the 17th century Longtown was a village, although its inhabitants were still

prosperous enough to pay for the re-roofing of the medieval chapel in 1640 AD

(Morriss and Williams 1991). There is no documentary evidence to suggest that the

town played any part in the Civil War, but the discovery of cannonballs in the keep of

the castle (HWCM 19465) might imply some military activity at this time (Morriss and

Williams 1991). Until the 1890s two annual fairs were still held at the village.


1.4 Placename studies

The Welsh commote of Ewyas, meaning " sheep district" , was divided into two

lordships before 1086. The Marcher Lordship centred on Longtown was known as

Ewyas Lacey and this name seems to have been applied to the castle and borough at

times. Longtown castle is referred to as Novi Castelli in the Pipe Rolls of 1187,

however, and the borough of Longtown is referred to as Nova Villa in 1232. In the

1540s the settlement was called Longa Villa and Longton of Ewyas presumably because it

straggled along the Hay to Abergavenny road (Coplestone-Crow 1989).


1.5 Syntheses of documentary and archaeological data

The documentary and archaeological evidence relating to Longtown has been

summarised by Wills (1981) and more recently by Morriss and Williams (1991). The

present assessment was carried out by the Central Marches Historic Towns Survey in

1993. The text was revised in March 1995 to incorporate the results of fieldwork

undertaken by the Survey (see section 1.7). No information published after December

1994 has been incorporated into this assessment.






1.6 Cartographic sources

The tithe map of 1840 (HFNS nd) and the Ordnance Survey first edition 1:2500 map

(Herefordshire sheet XLIII.12 (1888)) were used to aid the identification of remains and in

the definition of components. The manuscript plan of 1718 mentioned by Beresford

(1988, 451) was not consulted.


1.7 Archaeological excavations and surveys

A number of small-scale excavations, watching briefs and surveys have been carried

out in the town. The Victoria County History and RCHME have undertaken basic

earthwork surveys of the castle earthworks (VCH 1908, 242; RCHME 1931, 182).

There is an unsubstantiated report of excavation of stonework to the south of the castle c

1960 (HWCM 21943). In 1965 M Jarrett and G Jones carried out a small excavation on

part of what was considered to be the northern bailey of the castle to test the theory that it

was Roman in date (HWCM 22003; Hurst 1966). In 1972 the department of the

Environment undertook excavations in the Inner Bailey of the castle but these have not

been published (HWCM 22003; Morriss and Williams 1991). In 1984 a magnetometer

and resistivity survey was undertaken within the castle and the supposed settlement

areas to the north and south. However the results of this were somewhat inconclusive

(HWCM 22004, Bartlett 1984).

During an evaluation and subsequent watching brief on the land adjacent to the Police

Station buried deposits relating to the medieval settlement north of the castle were

recovered (HWCM 22005, Taylor and Woodiwiss 1988; HWCM 22008, Brown 1991).

(NB the reports of these interventions have been published under the SMR number for

the castle (HWCM 1036) rather than that for the earthworks of the settlement (HWCM

4576)). A watching brief was undertaken by J Roberts in 1983 during the conversion of St

Peter's Church to a domestic dwelling (HWCM 22007; Shoesmith 1983). A

watching brief to the west of this in 1989 provided evidence of post-medieval

landscaping in the area of the town defences (HWCM 22006; Edwards 1989). (NB The

report of the latter was also, mistakenly, published under the SMR number for the


In 1980 a series of rectangular cropmarks to the east of the town were investigated by

excavation and tentatively interpreted as the remains of a vineyard (HWCM 5458; Van

Laun 1981). It is probable, however, that these are geological features. Fieldwork was

undertaken by the Central Marches Historic Towns Survey in November 1994. This

identified remains, investigated and revised the extent of components, and recorded

18th and 19th century cellarage and modern developments in the urban area.


1.8 Acknowledgments

Survey fieldwork was undertaken by Hal Dalwood and Paul Godbehere. Analysis and

report writing were carried out by Victoria Buteux, and the report was edited by Hal



2 Pre-urban evidence

Roman remains were discovered when the school was built on Castle Green in 1869 (R

Shoesmith pers comm) but there is no other recorded archaeological evidence of human

activity in the modern parish of Longtown prior to the medieval period.






3 Medieval archaeological evidence


3.1 Medieval remains and buildings

Three archaeological excavations and one watching brief produced evidence to

demonstrate the survival of medieval deposits. Parts of the defences of the castle were

investigated (HWCM 22022; Hurst 1966) and masonry relating to the inner bailey

uncovered (HWCM 22003; Morriss and Williams 1991). Construction and demolition

layers of 12th to 13th century buildings were excavated in the area to the north of the

castle (HWCM 22005, Taylor and Woodiwiss 1988; HWCM 22008, Brown 1991). In all

cases the medieval deposits were very close to the modern ground surface.

The church of St Peter has been described and planned, and the sequence of

construction interpreted (RCHME 1931, 181; HWCM 2362). A watching brief in 1983

(HWCM 22007; Shoesmith 1983) indicated that medieval remains had been damaged

during the 19th century renovation. There are no surviving medieval domestic buildings in

the town but large parts of the medieval stone structure of the castle survive (Morriss and

Williams 1991).


3.2 Medieval urban components

Analysis of the evidence summarised above and other documentary sources indicated

the existence of 14 urban components. The characteristics of these urban components

are summarised below.


Castle (HWCM 1036). The earthworks and standing masonry of the castle form a

readily identifiable monument. The castle complex consists of a series of

rectangular areas, each apparently capable of being defended individually. These

are the inner and outer baileys in the western half of the rectangular earthwork and

the eastern bailey in the eastern half. The layout is very unusual and has led to

suggestions that the 12th century castle re-used an earlier structure such as a

Roman fort (Moore 1972). There is no conclusive evidence to prove this theory but

the possibility of an pre-Norman date for the earthwork remains (Morriss and

Williams 1991).

The earliest stonework in the castle is 12th century but this has been reused and the

majority of the masonry appears to be 13th century (Morriss and Williams 1991).

Details of the fortifications have been covered in a number of publications (VCH

1908; RCHME 1931; Kay 1978; Morriss and Williams 1991).

The Department of the Environment undertook excavations within the inner bailey in

1972 (HWCM 22003) and exposed the masonry cross-wall footing of a building

against the eastern curtain wall. This may have been the Great Hall but the inner

bailey would also have contained buildings such as a buttery, pantry, bake and

brew houses, chapel and lodgings (Morriss and Williams 1991).

Magnetometer and resistivity surveys were undertaken in the eastern bailey

(HWCM 22003; Bartlett 1984). This indicated the presence of pits, a possible

hearth and a linear feature running parallel with the earthworks. Duncomb (1812)

believed that the southern part of this area contained the castle apartments and that

the stone foundations of these had been robbed out in the post-medieval period

(Morriss and Williams 1991).


Town defences (HWCM 21945 and HWCM 21946). To the north and south of the

castle are the traces of subsidiary earthworks which enclosed the medieval

settlement closest to the castle. The northern defences (HWCM 21945) appear to

have consisted of an earthwork, possibly originally with a timber palisade, on the

eastern side, but to have relied on the steepness of the slope for protection on the





western side where there is no evidence of a rampart. The earthwork is now

fragmentary and large parts have been destroyed by modern housing. This area is

considered by some (Kay 1978; Morriss and Williams 1991) to be a fourth bailey of

the castle but whatever its original function it contains buried remains of 12th and

13th century house platforms and associated features (HWCM 19470, see below). It

is thought that, despite the published location, the excavations by Jarrett and Jones

were carried out on the eastern earthwork of this area, and this is supported by

observations of old trenches during the 1988 excavations (HWCM 22005; Taylor

and Woodiwiss 1988; Morriss and Williams 1991). Jarrett and Jones discovered

a bank of clay overlying turf with a rough stone structure on the inside and no ditch

within 7m (Hurst 1966). Stonework observed in the northeast area where the

rampart has been destroyed by modern housing (HWCM 22009) also suggests a

stone revetment to the defences.

The southern defences (HWCM 21946) have almost completely disappeared but

some trace of earthworks still remain (HWCM 19464, HWCM 19466, Wills

1981). These enclosed the medieval chapel and market place (HWCM 19473) and,

as in the case of the northern defences, were probably topped by a timber palisade

(Morriss and Williams 1991). No trace of a ditch or bank was observed during the

cutting of a pipe trench 0.3m wide and 0.76m deep across the area of the eastern

defences close to the castle (HWCM 22006; Edwards 1989) but this may have been

due to the depth of 19th and 20th century dumping observed in this area. In both the

northern and southern defences there must have been a defended gateway where the

main road entered the town.


Church (HWCM 2362). In the medieval period Longtown was in the parish of

Clodock, but the new borough was obviously considered to be too far from the

parish church and a chapel of ease was built in the market place. The present

building dates from the 13th century, but contains re-used 12th century masonry

(RCHME 1931, 181) which may have come from an earlier building on the site.

The chapel was situated in the market place and, as is the case of the chapel of ease in

Bewdley, seems never to have had a burial ground. A watching brief was

undertaken when St Peter's was converted for domestic use in 1983 (HWCM

22006; Shoesmith 1983). This revealed that Victorian renovation had destroyed

medieval deposits in the nave. The chancel had not been lowered in the 19th

century, and medieval remains may survive in that area.


Market place (HWCM 19473). The market place was identified as the triangular

area of land within the southern defences. The market was quite large in the

medieval period and may have contained market buildings. The present buildings

within the area of the medieval market area may be on the site of medieval market

buildings or may be post-medieval infilling. No market charter survives for

Longtown although one is likely to have been in existence from at least the early

13th century. The market was no longer functioning by 1500 (O'Donnell 1971).


Street system (HWCM 19471). The borough had a simple street pattern with

burgage plots laid out at right angles to the High Street. This road runs through the

eastern bailey of the castle which presumably necessitated gates in the defensive

earthworks (Morriss and Williams 1991). Jew's Lane and the east-west routes

probably took their present form after the castle was no longer defended.


Tenement plots (HWCM 19470, HWCM 19472, HWCM 19476, HWCM 19477,

HWCM 19478, HWCM 19479, HWCM 21942). Despite a geophysical survey

(Bartlett 1984) there is no direct evidence of occupation on the west side of the

road within the northern defences (HWCM 19472). To the east of this road,

however, fieldwork have demonstrated the presence of medieval occupation

(HWCM 19470). The remains of house platforms, sandstone footed buildings and

associated deposits and artifacts were recovered (HWCM 22005, Taylor and





Woodiwiss 1988; HWCM 22008, Brown 1991). From the ceramic evidence it

would appear that this area was abandoned after the 13th century and not occupied

again until the 18th century. Earthworks of house platforms were observed in 1979

(HWCM 5010) to the west of the main street and north of the castle and it seems

that there was a long thin strip of tenement plots in this area (HWCM 21942).

It is probable that medieval occupation was at its most dense in the area fronting the

market place, but there is no archaeological evidence for occupation inside the

southern defences (HWCM 19476, HWCM 19477) and the geophysical survey in

this area was inconclusive. This may be due to the raising of the ground surface by

19th and 20th century dumping which was observed in the north of this area

(HWCM 19477; Edwards 1989). To the south of the market place aerial

photographs showed a long range of tenement plots running down the spur on the

eastern side of the road (HWCM 19478). It is not clear how far this planned

development extended. The back boundary of HWCM 19478 has been determined

by shallow earthwork (HWCM 19469) within the modern field. To the west of the

road (HWCM 19479) there is no evidence on the 19th century maps of long narrow

tenement plots. It is possible that this area was not occupied during the medieval

period or it may be that due to the contraction of the settlement by the end of the

medieval period the boundaries in this area have disappeared.


Open space (HWCM 21944). The medieval function of this area to the north of the

church is not known. It may of been part of the market place or have been open

ground in front of the defences.


3.3 Medieval urban form


Definition and classification. The medieval urban form (HWCM 19480) has been

defined and mapped, based on the extent of the identified urban components in

particular the castle and tenement plot earthworks. The available evidence indicates

that the medieval urban form of Longtown can be classified as a small medieval

market town (English Heritage 1992).


Survival. Archaeological fieldwork has demonstrated that buried deposits survive

relating to the castle, town defences and tenement plots. Where recorded these

deposits are 0.20m to 0.45m below modern ground surface (Taylor and Woodiwiss

1988). Substantial earthworks survive relating to the castle. Less substantial

earthworks of the house platforms, low banks dividing tenements and the remains of

the town defences also survive. The remains of the town defences have been

damaged by post-medieval activity and modern housing development, and the

earthworks observed in 1979 at the north end of the town (HWCM 5010) have

since been ploughed flat. The only medieval buildings to survive are the church

(HWCM 2362) and castle (HWCM 1036).

The components of the urban form comprising castle, church, tenement plots,

market and street system can be readily identified. The survival of all these

components is good. The town defences components are less well defined.


4 Post-medieval archaeological evidence

Documentary evidence suggests that Longtown no longer functioned as a market town by

1500 (O'Donnell 1971) and the population probably decreased rapidly from the

second half of the 14th century. Archaeological evidence from the settlement area to the

north of the castle (HWCM 19470) suggests that there was no occupation of this area

between the end of the 13th century and the end of the 18th century (Taylor and

Woodiwiss 1988; Brown 1991). Pottery recovered from the castle, perhaps from the

1972 excavations, is dated to the 16th and 17th century, however. The area of the





medieval town contains a few 16th century buildings (HWCM 9517), as well as 17th

century buildings (HWCM 9516, HWCM 9518, HWCM 17526, HWCM 19462) and

18th century buildings (HWCM 7528), but it seems to have been very sparsely

occupied throughout the post-medieval period. The 1840 tithe map (HFNS nd) and the

1888 Ordnance Survey map show a very dispersed settlement. The watching brief in the

carpark of the Mountain Rescue post (Edwards 1989) indicated that this area had been

used as a rubbish dump in the 19th century.


5 Specialist assessments


5.1 Assessment of artefactual evidence J D Hurst

Little artefactual evidence is available for Longtown. Small amounts of undated

medieval pottery and other artefacts of stone and metalwork have been recovered from

excavations at the castle (HWCM 22003) and the northern town defences (HWCM

22002). Fieldwork within the settlement area to the north of the castle (HWCM 22005,

HWCM 22008) recovered pottery and other finds dating to the 12th and 13th centuries.

Post-medieval finds have been recorded at several sites (HWCM 22003, HWCM

22005, HWCM 5453).


5.2 Assessment of environmental evidence E A Pearson

Although several excavations have been undertaken, there has been no policy of

wet-sieving samples for environmental remains and no remains have been

hand-collected during fieldwork to date.


5.3 Assessment of documentary sources P A Stamper

Longtown would appear to be very poorly documented. Principal groups of primary

sources are listed in section 8. No histories of the settlement at Longtown have been



5.4 Assessment of buildings R Morriss

Apart from one timber-framed building of late 16th century date, the Old Greyhound

(HWCM 9517), most of Longtown's older buildings are built of the local sandstone

rubble. Only towards the very end of the 19th century does brick seem to have become

significant. The former urban nature of the settlement is seen in its topography rather

than in its architecture. The castle and the former chapel-of-ease of this medieval new

town survive, but no other standing buildings give any indication of Longtown's earlier

urban character.


Survey and analysis. Apart from work on the castle, little seems to have been done on

any of the other buildings in the town and no synthetic study has been produced.


Assessment of the listing details. The list dates to 1986 and is well up to the expected



6 Archaeological research framework


6.1 Model of urban development

A model of the medieval town of Longtown has been produced which is predictive and

capable of testing through archaeological investigation. This model has both

chronological and spatial (landuse) dimensions (see sections 2 to 4) and is based on an

analysis of documentary, cartographic and archaeological sources. The model is derived





from the current academic understanding of urban development in Britain, and forms

one element of a developing regional research framework. The model is provisional and

will be subject to confirmation or revision in the future as new information becomes

available, or new studies lead to changing understandings of towns in the region.


6.2 Chronological framework

The archaeological and documentary evidence indicates that urban occupation

commenced in the 12th century on a new site. Urban occupation was relatively short

lived, only lasting between the 12th and 14th centuries but the site of the former town

continued to be occupied until the present. The broad outlines of this chronological

framework are provisional and require testing through archaeological investigation.


6.3 Urban landuse

The components identified here (section 3.2) have been mapped and constitute a model of

urban landuse for the medieval period. This landuse model is partial and provisional and

capable of testing through archaeological investigation.

The castle, chapel, northern defences and one tenement plot component have been

archaeologically investigated and it has been demonstrated that structural and artefactual

evidence survives in these components. Other urban components have not been

investigated, and there is potential for recovering archaeological evidence relating to the

extent and internal layout of burgage plots, the intensity of occupation within the town

and the location of industries. Of particular interest would be more information of the

extent of the market place and the nature of the town defences.


6.4 Potential for survival of buried remains

What archaeological information there is available for Longtown indicates that the

potential for the survival of buried remains is different in different parts of the town.

The standing earthworks of the castle and town defences represent a substantial depth of

archaeological deposits. Excavations in these area (HWCM 22002, Hurst 19966;

HWCM 22003, Morriss and Williams 1991) have not been published but available

evidence indicates that medieval structural remains are relatively well preserved just

under the modern ground surface. Other areas of the defences have been destroyed by

modern housing.

The published excavation and watching brief to the north of the castle have

demonstrated that substantial medieval deposits are located beneath c 0.2m to 0.4m of

18th to 20th century deposits, but that there is little intrusion of later features into

medieval contexts (HWCM 22005, HWCM 22008, Taylor and Woodiwiss 1988;

Brown 1991). To the south of the castle, however, any early deposits appear to have

been covered up with at least 1.0m of 19th and 20th century rubbish dumping (HWCM

22006; Edwards 1989). The watching brief on the church (HWCM 22007; Shoesmith

1983) suggested that a large part of the medieval below-ground deposits had been

destroyed during renovation work in the 19th century.

Fieldwork was undertaken by the Central Marches Historic Towns Survey in November

1994. The aim was to map the extent of 18th and 19th century cellarage and 20th

century development (new buildings and major landscaping work). This showed that

there was no observable cellarage along the main streets but moderate modern

redevelopment within the historic core.


6.5 Potential for artefactual studies J D Hurst

Little archaeological work has been undertaken in Longtown, and less has been

published, and so the extent of surviving artefactual evidence in buried deposits cannot





yet be assessed in any detail. It is likely that some contexts such as the castle ditches

could be of significance for the survival of artefactual evidence as they may include

waterlogged finds. The presence of medieval and post-medieval deposits has, however,

already been demonstrated at some sites (HWCM 22005, HWCM 22008). Due to

apparent abandonment of some areas of the town after the 13th century (Taylor and

Woodiwiss 1988), there are likely to be minimal problems with residuality in most



Period discussion. The published medieval pottery assemblage (HWCM 22005, Taylor

and Woodiwiss 1988; HWCM 22008, Brown 1991) is of some interest as the Longtown

area seems to be supplied both from the south (ie Monnow Valley ware from the

vicinity of Monmouth (Papazian 1992, 68-9)), and the northeast (ie Malvernian ware). It

has been suggested (Clarke 1991, 33-4) that an important overland medieval trade route

existed linking the Gloucestershire/Worcestershire area with Wales, and it is possible

that Longtown formed part of this pattern of trade. Although the presence of particular

fabrics has been noted in some reports, no detailed identification of fabrics has taken

place. The earliest medieval activity based on archaeological evidence is of late 12th to

13th century date, following dating suggested by Clark (1987, 57) for decorated

Monnow Valley ware, a small quantity of which was present at HWCM 22005

(Taylor and Woodiwiss 1988). In general the pottery groups have been of small size (ie

less than 100 sherds).

There is little information about post-medieval artefacts although 16th and 17th century

pottery has been recovered from the castle (HWCM 22003).


6.6 Potential for environmental remains E A Pearson

The small amount of fieldwork carried out in the town and the lack of emphasis during

fieldwork on environmental remains means that the potential for recovery of

environmental remains and for environmental research in Longtown is largely

unknown. Organic material may survive, however, as a result of seasonal waterlogging in

some circumstances, particularly in pits or ditches. The non-acid conditions also

suggest that there is a reasonable chance for the survival of animal bone and molluscs.

In 1965 a buried turf line was observed beneath the northern town defences (HWCM

22002; Hurst 1966) and the earthworks of the castle may also overly buried soils. Such

deposits can provide information on the previous use of the land (for example, whether

the land was under cultivation or pasture) using soil micromorphology and pollen

analysis. In some cases there may be little other archaeological evidence for the

previous use of the area. Other environmental information relating to occupation of the

town may be recovered from areas identified as tenement plots.

As no environmental archaeological studies have been undertaken in Longtown, any

environmental material would be of interest. This could provide information on diet,

living conditions and agricultural or industrial economy. Any future excavations should

include a policy of sampling and wet-sieving soil from archaeologically relevant

contexts in order to recover plant, insect, mollusc and small animal remains in

conjunction with hand-collection of larger items. Where appropriate, specialist

sampling for soil and pollen analysis may be required.


6.7 Potential for the study of standing buildings R Morriss

The small number of pre-modern buildings in the area of the historic town means that

there is little potential for further recording work.


6.8 Summary of research potential

The historic core of Longtown contains buried archaeological deposits, and these are





judged to have high potential. In addition there is high potential for the recovery of

artefact assemblages, and moderate potential for the recovery of ecofatual assemblages.

The historic buildings do not constitute an extensive complementary body of evidence,

and are judged to have low potential for detailed study and recording. The surviving

documentary sources are very few in number and consequently the potential for further

study is very limited.


7 Management framework


7.1 Urban archaeological area

The mapped extent of the medieval urban form defined above indicated the extent of the

urban area (Longtown Urban Archaeological Area). The significance of the urban

archaeological area is assessed below.


7.2 Existing protection measures

The archaeological urban area of Longtown has been defined above (Section 5.1). The

different parts of the urban area are afforded different measures of protection through

legislation and the planning process. Directly relevant measures are outlined below.


Scheduled ancient monument. There is one Scheduled Ancient Monument in

Longtown, which includes the castle and part of the medieval borough (Here and

Worc no 20). It is possible that following the current Monument Protection

programme English Heritage may modify the scheduled area or add other

monuments in Longtown to the schedule.


Listed buildings. There are a total of six buildings listed as of historical or

architectural importance within the urban area. Buildings of special architectural or

historic interest should receive very special attention. Such buildings are limited in

their number and there is a need to protect and preserve them. The presumption

when considering applications to demolish or alter is in favour of preservation.

This presumption is also likely to preserve archaeological remains beneath and

immediately around such buildings from development. It is important that the

architectural and archaeological interests are considered together.

The alteration of listed buildings requires the greatest skill and care to avoid

damage to historic structures. Specialist architectural advice is given by the County

Conservation Architect or through the District's own conservation officer where

that District Council has their own specialist staff.


7.3 Management approach

The archaeological urban area of Longtown contains earthworks and buried remains

relating to medieval occupation. The buried remains vary in complexity and depth, and

demonstrably contain significant archaeological information. It is desirable that any

proposed development within the urban area that has a potential impact on earthworks or

buried remains should be assessed by the appropriate archaeological body as early as

possible in the planning process.

The course of action recommended will depend upon the nature of the development and

current planning legislation and frameworks. The archaeological response will be

framed using both the archaeological information summarised in this document and any

subsequent information recorded on the Sites and Monuments Record, supplemented by

other sources as and when available.






8 Principal groups of primary sources compiled by P A Stamper

(HRO: Hereford Record Office)

HRO J 91 Court book for manor of Ewyas Lacy (including Longtown),


HRO AH 46 Parish records. Registers (for Clodock and Longtown) from 1714;

a parish book from 1798

HRO passim A small number of post-medieval deeds and other records occur in

several collections

HRO HD L 519 Tithe map (1840) and apportionment (1844)


9 References

Bannister, A T, 1916 The place-names of Herefordshire

Bartlett, A, 1984 Longtown, Herefordshire, English Heritage Ancient Monuments

Laboratory Report: Geophysic 5/84

Benn, C A, 1941 Castles mentioned in the Pipe Rolls under Herefordshire, Trans

Woolhope Natur Fld Club, 30, 128-138

Beresford, M, 1967 New towns of the middle ages

Brown, D L, 1991 Watching brief at Longtown, HWCC 1036, HWCC Archaeological

Service Internal Report

Clark, S, 1987 Decorated Monnow Valley ware, in Studies in medieval and later

pottery in Wales, (ed B Vyner and S Wrathmell), Cardiff

Clark, S, 1991 The origins of medieval pottery in south-east Wales, Medieval

Ceramics, 15, 29-36

Coplestone-Crow, B, 1989 Herefordshire place-names, BAR British Series, 214

Edwards, R, 1989 Watching brief at Longtown, HWCM 1036, HWCC Archaeology

Service Internal Report

English Heritage 1992 Monument evaluation manual, part 4: urban areas, 2

Hurst, D J, 1966 Medieval Britain in 1965, Medieval Archaeol, 10

HFNS nd Herefordshire field-name survey: Longtown, Woolhope Naturalists' Field


Kay, R E, 1978 Field meeting at Longtown and Crasswell, Herefordshire Archaeol

Newsletter, 35, 3-10

Marshall, G, 1938 The Norman occupation of the lands in the Golden Valley,

Ewyas, and Clifford and their motte and bailey castles, Trans Woolhope Natur Fld

Club, 29, 141-158

Moore, L P, 1972 Note on Longtown Castle, Herefordshire Archaeol Newsletter, 26, 8-9

Morriss, R, and Williams, R, 1991 Longtown, Herefordshire. Notes on the history of

Longtown, or Ewias Lacey, and the structural development of its castle, Hereford

Archaeology Series report, 104





Noble, F, 1964 Medieval boroughs of west Herefordshire, Trans Woolhope Natur Fld

Club, 38, 62-70

O'Donnell, J, 1971 Market centres in Herefordshire 1200-1400, Trans Woolhope

Natur Fld Club, 40, 186-194

Papazian, C, and Campbell, E, 1992 Medieval pottery and roof tiles in Wales AD

1100-1600, Medieval and later pottery in Wales, 13, 1-107

Ragg, J M, Beard, G R, George, H, Heaven, F W, Hollis, J M, Jones, R J A, Palmer, R C,

Reeve, M J, Robson, J D, and Whitfield, W A D, 1984 Soils and their use in midland

and western England, Soils Survey of England and Wales, 12

RCHME 1931 An inventory of the historical monuments in Herefordshire 1

Renn, D F, 1973 Norman castles in Britain

Rowley, T, 1986 The landscape of the Welsh Marches

Shoesmith, R, 1983 Archaeology 1983, Trans Woolhope Natur Fld Club, 44,


Stanford, S C, 1980 The archaeology of the Welsh Marches

Taylor, G, and Woodiwiss, S, 1988 Evaluation excavation at land adjacent to the

Police Station, Longtown, HWCC Archaeological Service internal report

Thorn, F, and Thorn, C (eds), 1983 Domesday Book: Herefordshire, Chichester

Van Laun, M, 1981 Medieval vineyard in west Herefordshire?, Trans Woolhope

Natur Fld Club, 43, 355-356

VCH 1908 The Victoria history of the County of Herefordshire, 1

Wills, J, 1981 Archaeology in South Herefordshire District - the rural west,

unpublished typescript, HWCC Archaeology Section


10 Mapping

The illustrations for this report [downloadable as pdf files via the links below] comprise CAD plots of the urban components for each

period and a location plot of archaeological remains combined with OS digital map data

(1995) at 1:5000. These plots are current at the date of the completion of this report

(March 1995). After this date new information will be held by the Hereford and

Worcester County Council Sites and Monuments Record.


* Historic buildings (listed and other recorded buildings) and urban area

* Archaeological remains and urban area

* Medieval urban form and components

* Urban area and scheduled ancient monuments

* Archaeological Constraints


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