Held at:

Worcestershire County Council [HWCC Archaeology Service]




Original publication


Archaeological Assessment of Ewyas Harold [Central Marches Historic Towns Survey]

Place name:

Ewyas Harold


1992 - 1996

Guest Contribution: Introduction

This archaeological survey report is reproduced with the kind permission of Worcestershire County Council Historic Environment and Archaeology Service to whom we are most grateful. The accompanying illustrations can be downloaded as pdf files by clicking the links at the end of the document.

Ewyas Lacy Study Group




Central Marches Historic Towns Survey 1992-6


Ewyas Harold




Primary contact


Laura Templeton

Project Officer (illustration)

Worcestershire County Council


University of Worcester



Tel: 01905 855419



Ewyas Harold



Archaeological assessment of Ewyas Harold, Hereford and Worcester


Victoria Buteux with contributions by Derek Hurst, Richard Morriss, Elizabeth Pearson

and Paul Stamper



The historic town of Ewyas Harold was surveyed during the Central Marches Historic

Towns Survey, a desk-based study of 64 smaller historic towns in Shropshire,

Herefordshire and Worcestershire. Archaeological and documentary evidence relating

to the historic core of Ewyas Harold was carefully analysed, comprising topographic

data, published and unpublished archaeological reports, museum collections, primary

and secondary historical sources, historical maps, and field data recorded by the

project team.

Detailed evidence is provided on the character and layout of the settlement in the

medieval period. The available information is analysed and mapped in detail, and a

model of the development of the town is proposed. In addition, the evidence for

pre-urban occupation is considered, together with evidence of post-medieval

occupation. All archaeologically-relevant information has been recorded as part of the

county Sites and Monuments Record. Specialist assessments of artefacts, ecofacts,

standing buildings and documentary sources are included. A detailed archaeological

research framework has been developed for Ewyas Harold, which will inform future

archaeological investigations as well as management decisions.

The historic core of Ewyas Harold contains buried archaeological deposits, and these

are judged to have moderate potential. In addition there is moderate potential for the

recovery of artefact and ecofact assemblages. No medieval vernacular buildings survive

in Ewyas Harold. The surviving documentary sources are of average quantity for a

small borough, and consequently there is limited potential for further study.


1 Introduction


1.1 Location and landuse

The urban area of Ewyas Harold is located at NGR SO 387 286 in South Hereford

District. The modern settlement of Ewyas Harold comprises a cluster of houses south of

the castle along the road to Pontrilas with some development westwards along the road to

Walterstone and extensive modern development to the north of the church.


1.2 Topography, geology and soils

Ewyas Harold lies at a height of between 75m and 110m OD. The underlying topography

consists of a spur between two small valleys on which the castle sits and an area of low

ground around the Dulas Brook which is the location of the medieval and modern village.

The soils of the Bromyard association are mainly typical argillic brown earths (Soil


Ewyas Harold




Survey of England and Wales, Ragg et al 1984). The underlying geology borders

Devonian St Maughan's Formation and Silurian Raglan Mudstone Formation (British

Geological Survey 1:250,000, sheet 52°N-0.4°W).


1.3 Chronological outline

The castle at Ewyas Harold was probably that mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

as Pentecost's castle in 1052 (Thorn and Thorn 1983), one of only five castles

constructed in England before the Norman Conquest (Thompson 1991, 11). In the

Domesday Book it is described as having been rebuilt by William Fitz Osbern (Thorn

and Thorn 1983) and, along with the castles at Wigmore, Clifford and Hereford, was

probably intended as a base from which to attack Wales. The castle was of strategic

importance up until the early years of the 15th century. It was besieged during the War of

Owen Glyndwr (Bannister 1902, 79) but, with the end of that war, the border castles were

no longer needed and it was unoccupied after this period (Bannister 1902, 88).

In c 1100 Harold of Ewyas endowed the monks of Gloucester with the tithes of his

demesne, and with the lands and other possessions of St Michael's Church in Ewyas. In

return for this the monks undertook to serve the church of St Michael, and to provide a

chaplain for the chapel of St Nicholas in the Castle of Ewyas. The church in Ewyas,

and therefore the original site of the Priory cell, was at Dulas (Coplestone-Crow 1993;

Bannister 1902). In c 1120 the priory was moved to the outer bailey of Ewyas Harold

castle. The priory was never successful due to the poverty of the area; the constant

disputes between the Lords of Ewyas and Gloucester Abbey (Bannister 1902, 79); and

the lax and dissolute life of the brethren. It was suppressed in 1358.

Ewyas Harold had two messuages in castello in 1086, and Beresford suggests that these

may have been the beginnings of a borough (Beresford 1988, 450). The exact location of

this early town is not known but it was presumably in an outer bailey possibly in the area

of the present village (Beresford 1988, 450). There are references to burgages in Ewyas

Harold from the 12th century (Bannister 1902, 68; Coplestone-Crow 1986, 380). In

1300 John Tregoz, Lord of Ewyas, died without male heirs and the records of the

resulting Inquisition post mortem included his land at Ewyas Harold. A total of 70

burgages are mentioned in the extent, and the inhabitants included a carpenter, tailor,

three weavers, shoemaker, cooper, dyer, two laundresses and a carrier (Bannister 1902, 69, 117-120).
Fairs were held twice a year (Bannister 1902, 70).

The borough may never have been very successful, and like many settlements in the

region seems to have fallen into a decline before or during the 14th century. There was no

market at Ewyas Harold by 1500 (O'Donnell 1971, 191), and in the later medieval and

post-medieval periods the settlement was entirely rural in character. Leland in c 1540

mentioned that " next to the castle is a village called Ewyas Harold" (Chandler 1973,



1.4 Placename studies

The place-name element Ewyas may be pre-Celtic in origin, but its meaning is unclear.

Harold refers to Harold of Ewias, the son of Earl Ralph, the nephew of Edward the

Confessor (Bannister 1916). The earliest recorded form of the placename is in

Domesday where it is written Ewias. In the Book of Llandaff it is spelt in a number of

ways of which Euias is the most common. In Welsh writings the name appears as Euas.

The form Ewyas starts to appear from the early 14th century, although Leland refered to

it as Ewis in the 16th century (Bannister 1902 and 1916).

Some analysis of field-names from the 1844 Tithe Map has been undertaken in order to

identify medieval fields and the location of buildings mentioned in medieval documents

(Sprackling 1988).


Ewyas Harold




1.5 Syntheses of documentary and archaeological data

A synthesis of the documentary sources was undertaken by Bannister (1902) and more

recently by Coplestone-Crow (1986, 1992, and 1993). No survey of the archaeological

data has been undertaken. The present assessment was carried out by the Central

Marches Historic Towns Survey in 1994. The text was revised in March 1995 to

incorporate the results of fieldwork undertaken by the Survey (see section 1.7). No

information published after December 1994 has been incorporated into this assessment.


1.6 Cartographic sources

The Tithe Map of 1844 (HFNS nd) and the Ordnance Survey first edition 1:2500 map

(Herefordshire sheet XLIV.11 (1888)) were used to aid in the identification of remains

and the definition of components.


1.7 Archaeological excavations and surveys

A small archaeological excavation was undertaken on the site of the Priory (HWCM

21498; Wills 1983) in 1983. Fieldwalking was carried out at the same site in 1988

(HWCM 21497; HWCC SMR site file), which recovered pottery and bones. In 1983 a

watching brief was carried out on the site of an earth bank (HWCM 5321) to the north of

the town. RCHME surveyed the castle earthworks (RCHME 1931), and subsequent sketch

plans of this and adjacent earthworks have been produced (Kay 1952, Sprackling 1988).

Fieldwork was undertaken by the Central Marches Historic Towns Survey in November

1994. This identified remains, investigated and revised the extent of components, and

recorded 18th and 19th century cellarage and modern developments in the urban area.


1.8 Acknowledgments and personnel

Survey fieldwork was carried out by Hal Dalwood and Paul Godbehere. Analysis and

report writing was carried out by Victoria Buteux. The report was edited by Hal



2 Pre-urban evidence

There are no prehistoric or Roman sites recorded on the County SMR for the modern

parish of Ewyas Harold. There is, at present, no evidence for a settlement on the site

prior to the foundation of the medieval town.


3 Medieval archaeological evidence


3.1 Medieval remains and buildings

The motte and bailey castle, whilst much disturbed by later activity, is still a substantial

earthwork with the motte standing to c16m above the bailey. The visible stone walls

and internal features had been almost completely removed by the 17th century. Robbing of

buried stone may have continued into the 19th century particularly on the motte

(Bannister 1902, 82, 100-1).

The earthwork to the north of the church (HWCM 5321) has been interpreted as part of the

medieval borough defences. There is no record of medieval material being retrieved during

a watching brief, and the real nature of this feature is not yet clear.

The foundations of buildings were still visible on the site of the Priory in 1952 (HWCM

1472; HWCC SMR site file), although the area has now been ploughed flat.

Excavations there (HWCM 21498) produced evidence of medieval activity, although


Ewyas Harold




whether this related to Priory or pre-Priory periods was unclear (Wills 1983; see

section 3.2). The excavation demonstrated, however, the survival of c 0.3m of

medieval deposits containing burnt stone, burnt clay, charcoal, animal bone and pottery c

0.7m below the present ground surface. Fieldwalking in this area in 1988 (HWCM

21497) also recovered pottery and bone.

The church of St Michael and All Angels is the only standing building of medieval date in

Ewyas Harold. The earliest surviving masonry is of mid-13th century date. The church

has been planned, and the sequence of construction interpreted (RCHME 1931; HWCM

16880). The base of a 14th or 15th century churchyard cross (HWCM 1474) stands c 15m

to the south of the church. In 1921 a decorated cross slab dated to c 1254 was found built

in to the wall of the Castle Inn (HWCM 19255).


3.2 Medieval urban components

Analysis of the evidence summarised above and of cartographic and documentary

sources indicated the existence of 10 urban components. The characteristics of these

components are summarised below.


Castle (HWCM 1499). The earthworks of the castle form a readily identifiable

monument. The castle may be may be pre-conquest in origin (see section 1.3), but

this has not been demonstrated by excavation. The castle was refortified after the

Conquest but fell into disuse by the mid-15th century. The motte and inner bailey

can be clearly seen but the extent of the outer bailey is not clear. Documentary

sources indicate that it contained a garden and barns (Bannister 1902, 68). It has

been assumed that the outer bailey housed the early borough before the installation of

the priory cell (see section 1.3 and below). In the mid-16th century the

antiquarian Leland noted that the chapel of St Nicholas was within the castle

(Chandler 1993, 228).


Priory (HWCM 1472). Around 1120 Robert of Ewyas granted the monks " all that

land in Ewyas where stood my father's barns and mine" for building a church and

monastic buildings (Bannister 1902), and the Priory moved from Dulas into the

outer bailey of the castle. Nothing of the priory survives above ground and its exact

limits are not known. Excavations in 1983 (Wills 1984) identified occupation

deposits which may have been associated with the priory, although in the report it

was suggested that they were evidence of the early borough which would have had to

evacuate this site prior to c 1120. The area of the priory was enlarged slightly in the

later 13th century, closing a path from the postern gate of the castle to the village

(Bannister 1902, 68). The priory never prospered and the monks were recalled in

1358. Foundations, presumably of monastic buildings, were still visible in 1952.


Churchyard (HWCM 19278). The churchyard lies to the east of the castle and

contains St Michaels church (HWCM 16880) and a churchyard cross (HWCM

1474). The present building dates to the 13th century but may have been founded at

the end of the 12th century (Coplestone-Crow 1993). The extent of the medieval

churchyard is not known and the boundary, for the purposes of this study, has been

drawn to include the site of the post-dissolution vicarage (HWCM 19272 ), the

supposed site of the monk's graveyard (HWCM 19273) with its chapel (HWCM

19284) and the present properties fronting the street.


Market place (HWCM 19280). There is no documentary evidence for the location

of the market place in Ewyas Harold. The 1844 tithe map shows a rectangular open

area at the junction of the road to the castle and the roads from Pontrilas to the east

and Walterstone to the west. This would be a suitable place for a market situated at

the top of the main street, close to the castle and the gate of the priory and with

Dulas Brook acting as a drain down its western side.


Ewyas Harold




Mills (HWCM 7512, HWCM 19271). In 1300 there were two mills on John

Tregoz's land at Ewyas Harold (Bannister 1902). The first of these was located

outside the Priory gate on the eastern side of the Dulas Brook. The course of the

Dulas has changed even over the last hundred years and the site of the mill may be on

the site of the Malt House (HWCM 7512) in the core of the town. Bannister

(1902) believes the other mill or the " Lords new mill" to have been at the site of the

weir to the south of the town (HWCM 19271).


Street system (HWCM 19277). The identification of the medieval street system is

tentative and is based on the presence of holloways (HWCM 19257, HWCM

HWCM 19268, HWCM 19270, HWCM 19274, HWCM 19275, HWCM 19276),

place-names (HWCM 19282) and proximity to other proposed urban components. It

has not been tested archaeologically. The holloway running north from the

Walterstone road (HWCM 19256) marks the site of a road which no longer existed by

the early 19th century, and may have skirted the medieval priory precinct and have

provided access to the castle. The road fronted by Alma and Harold Cottages

(HWCM 19282) may have served as a back lane and was known as the Dark Lane as

far back as the 17th century (Sprackling 1986). The present road leading north out

of the village may be later than the early 15th century as it utilises the ditch to the

east of the inner bailey and it has been excluded from the component map.

Documentary evidence (Bannister 1902, 68) suggests the presence of a road

between the castle and the Priory.


House plots (HWCM 19254, HWCM 19279, HWCM 19284). It has been assumed

that the earliest settlement at Ewyas Harold was sited in the outer bailey prior to

the establishment of the priory in that place. The only documentary evidence for

this is the two messuages noted as having been in castello in 1086 (Beresford 1988,

450). Excavations in 1983 (Wills 1983) revealed occupation deposits which it was

suggested belonged to this early settlement. The pottery was not dated, however,

and the remains could equally belong to the later priory. Component HWCM

19284 covers the area outside of the Priory to the north of Walterstone Road and is

intended to include rather than define any area of early occupation.

If the earliest town was situated in the outer bailey it must have been relocated by c

1120 when the Priory was moved from Dulas to Ewyas Harold (see above). The

later town almost certainly occupied the same site as the present village by the end of

the 13th century (Bannister 1902; Beresford 1988, 450)). Some vestiges of what may

have been long tenement plots survived to be recorded on the 1844 Tithe Map.

The Tithe map also records " town field" to the east of Dark Lane which

presumably marks the edge of the settlement (Sprackling 1986).

Components HWCM 19254 and HWCM 19279 are an attempt to define the

possible area of the medieval town. The presence of 70 burgages in 1300

(Beresford 1902) suggests quite a large are presumably on both sides of the road

out of the settlement to the southeast. The line of the Dulas Brook is likely to have

been different in the medieval period.


3.3 Medieval urban form


Definition and classification. The medieval urban form (HWCM 19281) has been

defined and mapped, based on the extent of the identified urban components and in

particular the limits of the earthworks of the castle and the surviving road pattern.

The available evidence indicates that the medieval urban form of Ewyas Harold can

be classified as a small medieval market town (English Heritage 1992).


Survival. There is moderate survival of the medieval urban form in the present day

settlement. Excavation has demonstrated that buried deposits survive in the area of

the Priory. Comparisons with other similar settlements indicate that waterlogged


Ewyas Harold




deposits may be found in the ditches of the castle and in the occupation areas

bordering the Dulas Brook and other streams. The low intensity of the late

medieval and post-medieval occupation at Ewyas Harold means that earlier deposits

may have remained relatively intact but due to the small size and nature of the

settlement these are likely to be insubstantial and possibly not far beneath the

modern ground surface. Substantial earthworks survive relating to the castle,

although these have been much disturbed. Other areas survive as less substantial

earthworks, including the bank defining the area of the priory and the several

holloways around the modern village. Only one medieval buildings survives (the

church, HWCM 16880).

Due to the present lack of archaeological knowledge the limits of the main

components of the town (castle, priory, churchyard, mill, house plots, market and

street system) are not clearly defined and the survival of features such as the

property boundaries within occupation areas (HWCM 19279, HWCM 19254)

cannot be determined.


4 Post-medieval archaeological evidence

The town of Ewyas Harold may never have been successful as a commercial centre. By the

mid-16th century it was referred to as a village (Chandler 1993, 228), and it has

remained so. The 1844 Tithe Map shows very sparse occupation. Buildings dating to

the 17th and 18th centuries survive and there is evidence of industrial processes such as

quarrying and lime burning in the vicinity of the castle (HWCM 19158, HWCM 19164,

HWCM 19160). No excavation of buried deposits of this date has been published but

sherds of post-medieval pottery from Ewyas Harold are held at Hereford City Museum

(HWCM 21994; Vince 1984, 6).


5 Specialist assessments


5.1 Assessment of artefactual evidence J D Hurst

Little artefactual evidence is available for Ewyas Harold. The finds assemblage from the

1983 excavation in the area of the Priory (HWCM 21498) included medieval pottery and

burnt stone. Medieval pottery has also been found in the vicinity of the Benedictine

Priory during fieldwalking (HWCM 21497). The small group of post-medieval pottery in

Hereford City Museum (HWCM 21994; Vince 1984, 6) includes wares dating to the 17th

to 19th century. It is not clear how this material was recovered, however.

Other pottery of unknown date was observed in a bank (HWCM 5321) to the east of the

castle and blocks of building stone have been recorded in the vicinity of the castle

(HWCM 1499), and in the river (HWCM 11366).


5.2 Assessment of environmental evidence E A Pearson

No environmental sampling was carried out during the only excavation at Ewyas Harold

but charcoal and animal bone were recovered (HWCM 21498; Wills 1983). Bone was

also recovered during fieldwalking in the same area (HWCM 21497). Neither of these

assemblages has been analysed.


5.3 Assessment of documentary sources P A Stamper

The post-medieval documentation for Ewyas Harold available in public repositories is

well below average in its quantity. That there is even a modest amount of medieval

documentation means that Ewyas Harold is better represented in the historical record

than many similar sites in Herefordshire. Principal groups of primary sources are listed in


Ewyas Harold




Section 8.

The main secondary sources that have been consulted during the assessment include

Bannister (1902) and Coplestone-Crow (1993). Secondary sources not consulted during

the assessment include Bannister's translations of many of the MSS on which his history

is based.


5.4 Assessment of buildings R Morriss

Ewyas Harold is now a large village, and most of its buildings date to this century.

There are a few 19th century buildings, but earlier structures are rare. There is

virtually nothing left above ground of the castle. None of the standing secular buildings

are urban in character or disposition. Only the relatively large medieval church of St

Michael and All Angels, dating back to the 13th century, reflects the urban past of the



Survey and analysis. Little or no work seems to have been carried out on the buildings of

the village.


Assessment of the listing details. There are few listed buildings in the village, but the

details seem to be comprehensive and detailed.


6 Archaeological research framework


6.1 Model of urban development

A model of the medieval town of Ewyas Harold has been produced which is predictive

and capable of testing through archaeological investigation. This model has both

chronological and spatial (landuse) dimensions (see sections 2 to 4) and is based on an

analysis of documentary, cartographic and archaeological sources. The model is derived

from the current academic understanding of urban development in Britain, and forms one

element of a developing regional research framework. The model is provisional and will

be subject to confirmation or revision in the future as new information becomes

available, or new studies lead to changing understandings of towns in the region.


6.2 Chronological framework

The archaeological and documentary evidence indicates that urban occupation may have

originated in the 11th century within the outer bailey of the castle but that the town had

developed by the 12th century, possibly on a new site outside the castle. The settlement

of Ewyas Harold has been continuously occupied to the present but ceased to have an

urban function by the end of the 15th century. The broad outlines of this chronological

framework are provisional and require testing through archaeological investigation.

Evidence for pre-conquest occupation, the chronology of the expansion of the town and

the decline in urban status would be extremely important.


6.3 Urban landuse

The medieval components identified here (section 3.2) have been mapped and constitute

a model of urban landuse for the medieval period. This landuse model is partial and

provisional and capable of testing through archaeological investigation.

Only the area of the Priory (HWCM 1472) has been archaeologically investigated and

nothing is known of the other urban components. Of particular interest would be

evidence for the nature of any pre-Priory occupation in the area of the Priory, the extent

of the medieval churchyard and the location and extent of the later medieval town. The

identification of burgage plots and information on the nature of domestic and/or


Ewyas Harold




industrial activity within them would also be very important


6.4 Potential for survival of buried remains

In the area of the Priory archaeological deposits were encountered at a depth of c 0.7m

below the present ground surface. No information is available on the extent or depth of

archaeological deposits elsewhere in Ewyas Harold, however. Because of the lack of

archaeological fieldwork in the town any surviving archaeological deposits and

associated artefactual and environmental assemblages would be very important.

Waterlogged archaeological deposits may be located close to the Dulas Brook. The

decline of the settlement in the later middle ages and the consequent reduction in

building activities may mean that medieval deposits are well preserved although they

are likely to lie close to the surface and therefore be very vulnerable to any modern

development or landscaping.

Fieldwork was undertaken by the Central Marches Historic Towns Survey in November

1994. This included the mapping of the extent of 18th and 19th century cellarage and of

20th century development (new buildings and major landscaping work). This showed that

there was little observable cellarage in Ewyas Harold but extensive modern

redevelopment within the historic core.


6.5 Potential for artefactual studies J D Hurst

Preliminary results from the archaeological investigation at the Priory (HWCM 21498)

suggest that deposits containing medieval finds do survive in Ewyas Harold and in some

places have been well protected by a considerable depth of overburden. It is also likely

that contexts that have not been investigated to date, in particular the fills of the castle

ditches which may be waterlogged, and if so would contain very significant artefactual



Period discussion The composition of the finds assemblage from the excavation at the

Priory (HWCM 21498) suggests that the deposits were derived from occupation possibly

associated with the castle. None of the artefacts from this site were identified in detail or

quantified. It is, however, likely that the overall pottery assemblage from Ewyas Harold

is small (ie less than 100 sherds).


Comparison with documentary evidence There is at present no artefactual evidence of

the documented trades such as shoemaker and cooper (Bannister 1902, 117-120).


6.6 Potential for environmental remains E A Pearson

The small amount of fieldwork carried out in Ewyas Harold means that a limited range of

biological material has been recovered. The full potential for recovery of

environmental remains and research is largely unknown. Organic material may survive as

a result of waterlogging, in some circumstances, particularly in pits or ditches and the

non-acid conditions of the soils at Ewyas Harold suggest that animal bone and

molluscs will survive.

A number of features identified in the town have potential for the recovery of

environmental remains. Organic material may survive in waterlogged deposits in the

ditches of the castle, the mill ponds, any fishponds associated with the Priory and

occupation deposits bordering the Dulas Brook. These deposits may provide information

relating to the surrounding natural environment and dumped occupational rubbish. The

earthworks of the castle may overly buried soils from which information may be gained

on the previous use of the land (for example, whether the land was under cultivation or

pasture) using soil micromorphology and pollen analysis. In some cases there may be

little other archaeological evidence for the previous use of the area. Other

environmental information relating to occupation of the town may be recovered from


Ewyas Harold




areas identified as tenement plots and the cemetery of St Michael's church.

As no environmental archaeological studies have been undertaken in Ewyas Harold, any

environmental material would be of interest. This could provide information on diet,

living conditions and agricultural or industrial economy. Future excavation should

include a policy of sampling and wet-sieving soil from archaeologically relevant

features in order to recover plant, insect, mollusc and small animal remains in

conjunction with hand-collection of larger items. Where appropriate, specialist

sampling for soil and pollen analysis may be required.


6.7 Potential for the study of standing buildings R Morriss

The small number of pre-modern buildings in the area of the historic town mean that

there is little potential for further recording work.


6.8 Summary of research potential

The historic core of Ewyas Harold contains buried archaeological deposits, and these

are judged to have moderate potential. In addition there is moderate potential for the

recovery of artefact and ecofact assemblages. No medieval vernacular buildings survive in

Ewyas Harold. The surviving documentary sources are of average quantity for a small

borough, and consequently there is limited potential for further study.


7 Management framework


7.1 Urban archaeological area

The mapped extent of the medieval urban form defined above indicated the extent of the

urban area (Ewyas Harold Urban Archaeological Area). The significance of the urban

archaeological area is assessed below.


7.2 Existing protection measures

The different parts of the urban area are afforded different measures of protection through

legislation and the planning process. Directly relevant measures are outlined below.


Scheduled ancient monument. There is one Scheduled Ancient Monument in

Ewyas Harold, the castle (Here and Worc no 16). It is possible that following the

current Monument Protection programme English Heritage may modify the

scheduled area or add other monuments in Ewyas Harold to the schedule.


Listed buildings. There are a total of two buildings and the churchyard cross listed

as of historical or architectural importance within the urban area. Buildings of

special architectural or historic interest should receive very special attention. Such

buildings are limited in their number and there is a need to protect and preserve

them. The presumption when considering applications to demolish or alter is in

favour of preservation. This presumption is also likely to preserve archaeological

remains beneath and immediately around such buildings from development. It is

important that the architectural and archaeological interests are considered together.

The alteration of listed buildings requires the greatest skill and care to avoid damage

to historic structures. Specialist architectural advice is given by the County

Conservation Architect or through the District's own conservation officer where that

District Council has their own specialist staff.


Ewyas Harold




7.3 Management approach

The archaeological urban area of Ewyas Harold contains earthworks and buried remains

relating to medieval occupation, associated with one contemporary building (the

church). The complexity and depth of the buried remains is largely unknown. Any

surviving deposits will contain archaeological information of great significance to the

understanding of town. It is desirable that any proposed development within the urban

area that has a potential impact on earthworks or buried remains should be assessed by

the appropriate archaeological body.

The course of action recommended will depend upon the nature of the development and

current planning legislation and frameworks. The archaeological response will be based

on both the archaeological information summarised in this document and any subsequent

archaeological information recorded on the County Sites and Monuments Record.


8 Principal Groups of Primary Sources compiled by P A Stamper

(HRO: Hereford Record Office)

HRO G 33 14th to 16th century compoti rolls

HRO W 92 Parish records; registers from 1734

HRO 6/35-6 Glebe terriers 1586, 1618

HRO various A very small number of post-medieval deeds and related


HRO HD L 523 Tithe map (1844) and apportionment (1845)


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9 References

Bannister, A T, 1902 History of Ewyas Harold

Bannister, A T, 1916 The place-names of Herefordshire

Beresford, M, 1988 New towns of the middle ages

Bull, H G, 1869 Ewyas Harold, its name, its castle, and its priory, Trans Woolhope

Natur Fld Club, 1869, 28-33

Chandler, J, 1993 John Leland's itinerary: travels in Tudor England

Coplestone-Crow, B, 1986 The fief of Alfred of Marlborough in 1086 and its descent in

the Norman period, Trans Woolhope Natur Fld Club, 45, 376-414

Coplestone-Crow, B, 1992 The castle of Ewyas Harold and its military arrangements in

the Norman period, Herefordshire Archaeol News, 57, 7-11

Coplestone-Crow, B, 1993 Medieval topography of Ewyas Harold, Hereford

Archaeol News, 60, 18-20

English Heritage 1992 Monuments Protection Programme, monument evaluation

manual, part 4 urban areas, 2

HFNS nd Ewyas Harold: Herefordshire field-name survey, Woolhope Naturalists'

Field Club

Kay, R, 1952 Ewyas Harold Castle, unpublished notes and sketches (copy in HWCC

SMR file)

Marshall, G, 1938, The Norman occupation of the lands in the Golden valley,

Ewyas, and Clifford and their motte and bailey castles, Trans Woolhope Natur Fld

Club, Vol for 1936, 1937 and 1938, 146-147

Noble, F, 1964 Medieval boroughs in West Herefordshire, Trans Woolhope Natur

Fld Club, 38, 62-70

O'Donnell, J, 1978 Ewyas Harold, Herefordshire Archaeol News, 35, 15

Ragg, J M, Beard, G R, George, H, Heaven, F W, Hollis, J M, Jones, R J A, Palmer, R C,

Reeve, M J, Robson, J D, and Whitfield, W A D, 1984 Soils and their use in midland

and western England, Soils Survey of England and Wales, 12

RCHME 1934 An inventory of the historical monuments in Herefordshire, 1

Rowley, T, 1986 The landscape of the Welsh Marches

Shoesmith, R, 1983 Archaeology 1983, Trans Woolhope Natur Fld Club, 44, 246-250

Sprackling, G, 1988 Some notes on the topography and medieval layout of the village of

Ewyas Harold, Herefordshire Archaeol News, 48, 19-25

Stanford, S C, 1980 The archaeology of the Welsh Marches

Thompson, M W, 1991 The rise of the castle

Thorn, F, and Thorn, C (eds), 1983 Domesday Book: Herefordshire, Chichester


Ewyas Harold




Tonkin, J W, 1974 Buildings in 1974, West Midlands Archaeol,17, 39-40

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appendices, 3, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Southampton

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9 Mapping

The illustrations for this report [downloadable as pdf files from the links below] comprise CAD plots of the urban components for each period and a location plot of archaeological remains combined with OS digital map data (1995) at 1:5000. These plots are current at the date of the completion of this report (March 1995). After this date new information will be held by the Hereford and Worcester County Council Sites and Monuments Record.


* Historic buildings (listed and other recorded buildings) and urban area

* Archaeological remains and urban area

* Medieval urban form and components

* Urban area and scheduled ancient monuments

* Archaeological constraints


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