Gwent Record Office
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Articles of Inquiry: Manorial Survey by Trevor Williams and others
A manorial survey on the part of Sir Trevor Williams, his wife Elizabeth, and Thomas Windham was begun in the context of a dispute over the ownership of a ‘moiety’ or share of the Lordship and Manor of Ewyas Lacy. The dispute arose in the aftermath of the Civil War when lands which had been sequestered to the Commonwealth between 1643-1660 were returned to their former owners. In June 1665, a Richard Hopton challenged the ownership of Trevor Williams and others in a court case: at issue was the legitimacy of inheritance from Lord Ralph Hopton [died 1652] to his four sisters Rachel, Mary, Catherine and Margaret, and from them to Trevor Williams and others. At the same time, beginning in June 1665, the manorial survey transcribed here asserts a perceived entitlement by Trevor Williams and others by right of inheritance from the four sisters. A House of Lords ruling in 1672 confirmed the legitimacy of this lineage. For further details, click to see the succession of the Lordship of Ewyas Lacy and the Chancery Proceedings, Richard Hopton v. Trevor Williams .
This transcription of the Articles of Inquiry provides a considerable amount of detail about the management of the Lordship of Ewyas Lacy, which supplements information in another survey for John Jeffreys in 1701-05 [click to see].
The complete document is a bound book of 51 handwritten pages and is apparently a copy in a 19th century hand, with good legibility. The provenance has not been identified: the document is referenced in the ‘Manorial Index’ at Gwent Record Office in Cwmbran. The Articles of Inquiry are on pages 1-14, and the remainder of the survey [not transcribed here] covers the particulars of properties in response to Article 1 set out under the headings of:
The Manor or Barony of Llancillo and Rowlestone
[Tenants in] Longtown, Trewyn and Fwthog, Llanveynoe, Craswall, Michaelchurch Escley, Walterstone, Newcourt, Newton
Lands lately called Quarelly lands
The Lordship & Manor of Ewyas Lacy on the part of Sir Trevor Williams Baronett, Dame Elizabeth his wife and Thomas Windham Esquire.
The Court of Survey there held together with a Court Baron the 26th day of June in ye 17th year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord Charles ye 2nd  by the Grace of God King of England Scotland ffrance & Ireland Defender of the ffaith And there continued until ye 10th day of May in ye 19th year of the said Kings Reign anno que Dom 1667 by Richard Croft Gen. Steward & Surveyor of the sd Manor by virtue of a Special Warrant or Commission for the sd Sir Trevor Williams & Dame Elizabeth his wife.
The Names of the jurors for the Court of Survey & for the Court Baron
The Tenor of the Articles upon which ye Jurors afsd were charged at the Courts aforesaid so hereafter follow
[Click item number to see the reply]
1. Inps what is the quantity quality & yearly value of the sd Manor & of every part parcell or Member thereof respectively & in what & whose hands & by what terms or Grants are the same & every parcel thereof held & by what rents & Services.
2. Item whether they know or suspect any other Person or Persons to have any Evidence Court Rolls Court Books Rentalls Bookes of Survey Escrips Writings or Minuments Messuages Lands Tenements and hereditaments or any or either of them.
3. Item what are the several Limitts Butts & bounds of all & singular the premises & what Lord or Lords are conjoyning or bounding thereon And whether they or any of them intrude or intrench upon or within the Limitts or bounds aforesaid or the Liberties & Priviledges comprised within the same.
4. Item whether the premises or any part thereof Do lye & extend into any other Manor or whether any other Manor Messuages or Tenements do lye within the Limits & bounds of the premises & whose & what they are and where particularly.
5. Item what Castles or other Manors or Mansion Houses are belonging unto the sd Ldps in what Estate or repairation are the same and if decayed & wasted then by whom hath the same been committed and to what value what Demesne Lands were are or heretofore have been belonging or appertaining to the sd Castles Manor or Mansion Houses and in whose tenure or occupation are the same now by what Title or Titles do they challenge to hold what several rents do they pay in respect thereof And what is the true Quantity Quality & yearly value thereof.
6. Item what Mountains Heaths wasts & Commons are appurtaining and belonging unto the said Manor what are their several Names & bounds and what Liberty the Tenants or any other therein.
7. Item what & how many Hamlets and Townships are within the sd Ldp and Freeholders are there what Manors Mess & Tenements they hold thereof & what are their sevl names & the quality & quantities of the Lands they hold & the several rents they pay in respect thereof what is the true yearly value and by what several tenures & services do they hold.
8. Item what other Estates are there as Tenants for Terms of Life or Lives years or at Will & what Copyhold Tenants are there within the sd Ladp what lands do they hold severally & the true quantity quality & yearly value there severally & what yearly rents they pay for ye same.
9. Item what Reliffs Herriots Fines or other duties are paid or answerable upon or after ye death of any Freeholder Copyholder or other Tenant within ye sd Lordship how & by whom are they usually collected & disposed of.
10. Item whether any Tenant within the sd Ldp has severed aliened or divided or dismembered any Lands belonging to the Lords of this Manor who the use and occupation thereof and what are the names quanitites & qualitys and yearly value of the same.
11. Item what are the Customs in general of the said Ldp and are there not two payments called Horneyeld or Hornegeld & Mises due to the Lords of this Manor when they shall happen Set down the Times and Sums and the way of collecting them.
12. Item what Tenants are there within the premises who demise or let any part or parcell of the Lands or Tenements unto under-tenants either for their whole Term or any part thereof and what Fines or Rents have or do they receive for the same.
13. Item what Lands Tenements Rents Services or other profits are concealed and detained from the Lords of this Manor how long since by whom what is it that is so detained and the yearly value thereof.
14. Item what Fines Issues Amerciaments Perquisites of Court Herriots Waifs Estrays Felons Goods and other Causualitys are or ought to be due to the Lord of the sd Manor.
15. Item what Inclosures or Incroachments have been heretofore made of in or upon any of the Lords Common wast or Grounds how long since & by whom what rents are paid for the same which particular parcel are incroached or inclosed the quantity of each Particular & the value.
16. Item what Warrens Fishings Fowlings Hawking Hunting had the Lords of the sd Manor and what is the yearly value thereof.
17. Item what Quarries of Stone or other Minerals have the Lords in the said Manor and what is the yearly value thereof And also what Mosses of Peat or Turf what Broom Heath and Furs are within the precincts and belonging unto the Lord and what are the yearly thereof.
18. Item whether any Tenant or other person or persons whatsoever have plowed up Cast down removed or taken away any mear Stone Balke hedgerow or Landshare between any of the Lords Lands or any other Messuages Lands or Tenements or between any the Freehold Copyhold Leasehold or other Lands of the Lords in the said Manor by whom was such Offence committed and where And in what places ought those altered Bounds to stand & remain.
19. Item what are the Customs of the sd Lordship & Manor touching the payment of Herriotts upon Deaths or Surrender of any Tenant & who shall enjoy the Copyhold Lands after the death of the Tenant.
The answer of the Jury aforesaid to the articles aforesaid as follow –
1. To the first Article they can’t present anything material upon their own knowledge but refer themselves to the following Particulars set down in this book.
2. To the second they say upon their oaths that neither they or any of them do know of any Evidence Court Roll or Court Books Rentalls Books of Survey Escripts Writings or Minuments whatsoever that do or ought to belong to the Lords of this Manor to remain in their or any of their Hands or Custody nor in the Hands or Custody of any other Person or Persons.
3. To the third they say & present the boundary of the sd Manor to be as follows.
[Modern spellings are indicated where possible]
Beginning at Whitewall near Coed poeth from there to the Top of Hay Wrey or Worrish Hay [Urishay] North East dividing the Top of Hindon [Hinton] & Ewyas from thence to a place called pen Vagar [Vagar Hill] North East dividing the mear between Snowdale [Snodhill] & Ewyas from thence to a Place called Mynith breeth [Mynydd Brith] dividing the top of Clifford & Ewyas and so from thence following the Mountain dividing the Lordship of Cusop and Ewyas North West From thence to a place called Forrest Yeareth dividing the Lordship of the Hay & Ewyas And from thence to the Mountain called Creeb Gath [Crib y Garth] from the White Stone to a place called park bach dividing there the Countys of Hereford & Brecon which sd Mountain of Creeb Gath by the heighth of the same Divideth two Forests the one called Forrest Hene being the Lord of Abergavennys the other called the Forrest of Olphon [Olchon] belonging unto the sd Sir Trevor Wms in the right of Dame Elizabeth his wife who was the only Daughter of Rachel eldest Sister of Ralph late Lord Hopton and unto Thomas Windham Esq in the right of his Mother Catherine third Sister of the sd late Ralph Lord Hopton And from Park bach aforesaid to the height of the Mountain of Hattrell [Hatterrell] Dividing the top of Lanthony [Llanthony] being the Ldp of John Arnold Esq and Ewyas Lacy West and so following the sd Mountain of Hattrell by the height to the River of Honthy [Honddu] South West dividing there the counties of Hereford & Monmouth from the River of Hothney leading over a Bridge called Pont rees Powell [Pont Rhys Powell] through part of the County of Monmouth aforesaid to the Forrest or Mountain called there Keven Ewyas which sd Forrest or Mountain Shooteth in with angle between the sd Countys of Monmouth & Brecon and nevertheless is parcel of the Ldp of Ewyas in the County of Hereford South West which Forrest or Mountain containeth in length about two miles which is the Mear between the Ldp of Lanthony in the County of Monmouthsh on the one side & ye River Groney or Gronow [Grwyne] which runs between the County of Brecon & the Ldp of Ewyas on the other side and from the River of Hothney as afsd the Mear of the Lordship of Ewyas joyneth to the point of Hattrel directs into the River or small stream called Grwgy South dividing the Countys of Hereford & Monmouth afsd And so following the sd River of Gwgy into the River of Monnow joining to the House where John Delahay Esq now dwelleth called Alterynnis [Alltyrynys] And so along the said River of Monnow into Langua bridge South East dividing there also the Countys of Hereford & Monmouth And so following to a place called kae Newith [Cae Newith] & from there leading to a Place called Plash East dividing between the Ldp of Ewyas Harold and the Ldp of Ewyas from thence leading to the River of Dulass [Dulas] & new Ct [Newcourt] North East & so up along the sd River Dulas by the Nether Mescoed [Lower Maescoed] & so to the upper end of Middle Mescoed & so along following the wood or common called Upper Mescoed to Coed poeth to Whitewall afsd East where the mear of ye Ldp beginneth.
4. To the fourth Article they say & present that there are several mears & Baronys within the said Manor which are held of the Lords of this Manor vizt
John Scudamore of Kentchurch in the County of Hereford Esq holdeth free to him & his Heirs of the aforesaid Lords as of their Manor of Ewyas Lacy the Manors or Baroneys of Lancillo [Llancillo] and Rowlstone [Rowlestone] lying within the Ldp by suit of Court & paying unto the Lords of this Manor & their Heirs every seventh year Five shillings for a Tallage called Horngeld & five shillings for Misses whensoever they shall happen.
John Delahay Esq holdeth free as above of the Lords of this Manor the Manor of Trewin [Trewyn] lying within the precents of this Lordship by the yearly rent of fifteen pence suit of Court and five shillings for Horngeld & five shillings for Misses whensoever they shall happen.
Henry Vaughan Esq holeth free as above of the Lords of this Manor the Manor of Cusop within the Lordship of Ewyas Lacy aforesaid but by what rent or Service it doth not appear.
Gilbert Hare holdeth free of the sd Lord of this Manor the Barony or Monastry of Crasswall [Craswall] but by what Service they know not.
Thomas Jenings [sic] Gent holdeth free as above of the Lords the Baroney of Tregoed Yvor in Newton [Trecidivor, now in St Margaret’s] by the yearly rent of five shillings.
Thomas Delahay Gent holdeth free as above of the Lords of this Manor the Manor or Barony of Clotyr Hopkin [Clothier] by the providing of a Man & Horse with his proper ffurniture & Expences when he sall be thereto required to serve in Ireland.
The Barony or Manor of Trescaylond in Longtown [lost name - see alternative given in Article 5, still existing as Hunthouse] formerly the Lands of Simon Ap Harry Esq & after of Rowland Vaughan Esq and now in the Hands of the Lord of this Manor was formerly held of the Lords of this Manor by the yearly rent of 13s-9½d.
5. To the fifth Article they say & present that there is within the boundary of the Castle of Longtown One House which doth belong unto the sd Lords which is in good repair & held together with severall parcels of Lands by one Walter Jenkins Amongst which parcels there is one ground called Rees Wall which they conceive to be Demesne land The house is the place where the Lds Courts are usually held and so have been time out of mind They likewise further say & present that there hath been an Old Castle at Walterstone & another at Trescaylond (now called Hunt House) now both clearly decayed And to what quantity quality & yrly value thereof they refer themselves to what is hereafter set down in this book.
6. To the sixth Article they say & present that the Mountain of Hatrel within the sd Lordship and the Forrest Yearlth [sic] do belong jointly unto the Lords of this Manor and the Lord of Abergavenny And that the Tenants of each Lord have free common of pasture upon every of the same with all sorts of Beasts of their own without paying unto either Lord therefore And as to the Forrest of Olphon ye Common called Middle Mescoed & Keven bach [Keven Bach: thought to be Cefn and Vagar hills together] the antient Custom hath been & still is that the Tenants do & ought to pay unto ye Lords of the Manor for every beast above two years old three pence for the Summer Quarters and for the Winter Quarter they’ve it free without any And that every eight Sheep are acctd & ought to pay in proportion for one Beast. The sd three last commons of wast Grounds together with Coed Gravel in the Parish of Walterstone do particularly & peculiarly belong unto the Lords of this Manor and that neither the Lord of Abergy nor any of his Tenants have anything to do therein And that another Common called Keven bach is between both Lords.
7. To the seventh article they do say & present that there are in the sd Manor these several Townships called by the Names following vizt
The Township of Longtown which hath formerly been a burrough[borough] & Market Town
The Township of Lanveyno [Llanveynoe]
The Township of Crasswall [Craswall]
The Township of Michael Ch Escley [Michaelchurch Escley]
The Township of Newton
The Township of Lancillo & Rowlstone [Llancillo and Rowlestone]
The Township of Cusop
And as to the Freeholders & other Tenants within the same and the tenure by which they hold their respective Estates they refer themselves to the antient Records of the sd Manor & unto the Particulars thereafter set down in relation thereto And they further present that upon the death of every free Tenant dying seized of an antient Messuage there happeneth to the Lords of the sd Manor the second best beast & for want of such Beast five shillings And whereas there hath been severall parcels of Land formerly & antiently belonging to sevl Messuages sold & conveyed unto several persons And thereupon several Tenements have been & are newly built they find & present that upon the death of every such new Tenant that so hath built a new Tenement there happeneth to ye Lords of the Sd Manor upon such decease only five Shillings & Suit of Court.
8 & 9. To the 8th and 9th they say & present that all Waifs and Estrays & Felons Goods that shall happen to be found within the Limitts of the sd Lords in the Manor of Ewyas Lacy are due unto the Lords And that the particular precints & Limits of Lands between the sd Lords & the Lords of Abergavenny are distinctly known Only the Mountains of Hattrell & Forest Yealth are between the sd Lords and the Lord of Abergavenny (Except as in the 6th Article is excepted) And what Waifs Estrays or Felons Goods are found upon either of them do belong to the Lord which doth first seize And for respective Herriotts rents & other duties due from the respective Tenant unto the sd Lords they refer themselves to the antient Records and to what is hereafter set down But as for any duty of payment upon alienation of any Freehold land they know not of any that was ever done or paid within the said Manor.
10. To the tenth they cannot say anything.
11. To the eleventh they say & upon their Oths present that if the Lords of this Manor and the Lord Abergavenny shall jointly live & continue together Lords of the Manor of Ewyas Lacy for the space of seven years without passing alienating selling or setting over their or either of their Estates in or to the said manor then the tenants of both Lords (except the Hallmott Tenants) are to pay a Tallage called Horneld or Horngeld otherwise Treath (vizt) Eleven Pounds unto each Lord upon all Horned Beasts above two years old and every eight Sheep that feed and depasture within the said Manor and the same year that the same shall happen to be due the Lords Officers are to cause Notice thereof to be given in all the Churches & Chappells within the said Manor upon the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin St Mary or upon the first Sunday next following the sd Feast That every Tenant & Inhabitant within the sd Manor do yield recognition of all their payable Cattle upon the last day of April or upon the first or second day of May next after such Notice or warning given unto them And such as make default & do not at the time afsd yield an Account of their payable Cattle are to be amerced & fined They further say & present that the Cattle that are liable to the payment of the sd Horngeld or Treath are as followeth for every beast above the age of two years three pence and for every eight Sheep the same rate as a Beast every Barony & half Barony is to pay double his chief rent and every Copyholder that hath no Cattle nor Sheep is to pay double the Chief rent reserved in his Copy.
The Manner of Horngeld being as follow –
After the respective Tenants have given an Acct or Recognition of all such Cattle as are liable unto the sd payment unto the Stewards or Officers of the sd Lords at a certain time appointed the Stewards of Officer of the sd Lords at a certain time appointed by the said Lords are to acquaint the Tenants that according to the antient Custome he is to offer the collection of the sd Horngeld any two able Tenants that will engage to pay unto each Lord Eleven Pounds at Michs following After which such Tenants as are willing to contract for the same are the same day appointed before (see 8) the last day of April or first or second of May to offer unto the stewards or other officer appointed by the Lords to that purpose at what rate under three pence the head for each Beast above two years old and every eight sheep they will engage the Horngeld which offers the Stewards or other Officers appointed as aforesaid are privately to note down and afterwards those that do prefer to take least by the head of the other Tenants and do give Security to pay unto each Lord Eleven Pounds a peece at the Michs following are to have grant thereof And if anyone shall conceal and not give a true Account unto the said Undertakers of all there Beasts or Sheep that are liable to the said payment The same is or are forfeited to the Tenant or Tenants they shall have taken & secured for the sd Horngeld They likewise say and present that it doth appear by several of the Lords Records and by an Extract and Quietus [?] of the Exchequer of Queen Elizabeth that there hath been another payment unto the Lords of this Manor called Misses and in the Welsh Tall Hadnaboth which was the Sum of Ten Pounds be levied upon ye severall Tenements as by former Extracts doth appear And the payment was upon the coming in of every new Lord in consideration whereof the Lord was to grant unto his Tenants White Books The meaning whereof is to make new Records and the old to be laid aside and all amerciaments Fines & payments being due uinto the Lord in the Old Records were to be pardoned But by reason that no such tax or payment hath been levied or demanded in the memory of any one of them they cannot otherwise present them as above is mentioned they are conceiving & believing that formerly their advantages in windfall and other woods together with Mast & Acorns which were then had in the Lords Woods did more advantage them then such a payment did prejudice And that when the former Lords did cut & dispose of the Timber & Wood from the sd Commons & Wasts for their own proper use they did consider of the prejudice that the Tenants did sustain thereby & remitted the further payment upon which they find there are no Mises now due nor any Service in lieu thereof And as to any other Custom belonging to this Manor they cannot present further then that there are several Copyhold Tenants who now do hold their Lands for Lives certainly named in their copys which were granted unto them at or for such ffines or Sums of Money as they could agree to & which the Lord or Steward for the time being for the certainty whereof they refer themselves unto the entries of the sd Copys hereafter set down But further say & present that it hath been ye antient custome of ye sd Manor to have ye Fine certain (as they find by the recognition & Information of the most discreet & antient that are or were Customary Tenants of the sd Manor) that is thirteen shillings & fourpence for every Welsh acre and every Welsh acre to contain three Winchester acres at the least Howbeit in these late distracted times of War several of the Copyhold Tenants have lost their antient Copies and the due proceedings at Law being then obstructed severl of the sd Copyhold Tenants were forced to take new Copys at such Fines as they then could agreed with some persons who were then impowered from the late Lord Hopton and were then forced to deliver up their old Copy before they could have any new granted as this Jury have been credibly informed And futher present that the heir of a Copyholder is to have the Copyhold Lands & not the Executors or any other.
12 & 13. To the 12th and 13th they have nothing to answer.
14. To the 14th they say that all Fines Issues and Amerciaments Perquisites of Court Herriotts Waifs Strays ffelons goods and other Casualtys do belong to the sd Lord of the Manor.
15. To the 15th They refer themselves to what is hereafter set down concerning Encroachments & Inclosures either in former or latter times and are agreed within short space to lay them open to the severall Commons or Wasts they were taken.
16. To the 16th they say & present that the Royalty of Hawking Hunting Fishing & Fowling within the sd Lordship particulary belong unto the Lords of the same and not any other Person But ye value thereof they know no.
17 & 18. To the 17th and 18th they say & present that there are upon several parts of the Mountains & Wasts within the sd Manor Quarrys of Stone as well for Tiling as building and also for lime and likewise several places of Turf & Peat which the Tenants do usually dig & employ to their own uses within the sd Manor and do hope & conceive that they may soe do within the sd Manor and not elsewhere.
19. To the 19th they say & present that after the death of every Freeholder who dieth seized of a Mess that there is upon such death due unto the Lord his second best Beast and for every Tenement where there is no Messuage or Mess peace only five shillings and as to the Copyhold Lands held of the Lord of this Manor they say & present that after the death of the Copyholder the remainder of the Term in his Copy ought to descend unto His or Her next Heir and not to Exors or Administrators.
At the instance of the Jury aforesaid these following Particulars are presented –
Imp That the Calidcot Tenants within the Manor of Newton ought to have freedom of pasture for their cattle in the Lords Forrest & Commons.
Item They further present that no Tenant ought to take or keep any foreign or strange cattle or Sheep upon and of the Lords Forrests or Wasts neither ought any Stranger who is no Tenant to turn any such Cattle or Sheep there upon pain of Forty shillings to be levied by way of distress to the Lords use neither are the Tenants to turn more cattle of their own in the Summer they they can winter upon their own Land.
Item They present that it hath been the antient custom of this Manor that every one offending in breaking the Lords pound to take any Cattle Sheep or Horses thence or in making [?Rescuons] on the Lords Bailifs or on ye Sheriffs Bailiffs in executing of the Kings Writts for every such Offender to pay three pound and one penny unto ye Lord of the sd Manor to be levied by way of distress or otherwise.
Item They say & present according to the antient Custom of this Manor that no Tenant or Resident within this Manor ought to procure or commence any Suit at the Common Law unless the action do exceed the Sum of Thirty nine shillings & Eleven otherwise every person so offending shall forfeit to the Lord 39s-11d to be so levied of his Goods and Chattels whereof the Lord shall answer to ye party grieved 13s-4d.
The Mark of George Jenkins